Art therapy requires a trained art therapist. Your support is greatly appreciated! For more information about individual therapy, teen and child counseling, family therapy, teen group therapy, and art therapy services, please visit: www. In addition to blogging and working with clients, Carolyn enjoys making her own art, reading, running, enjoying nature, and spending time with her son and husband.
I just used black out poetry for a group art therapy session. It was a huge hit and the created poetry was quite powerful to all the participants. A few of the clients are continuing the work independently. I always think it wonderful when people discover a creative activity in group and then continue to use it independently. I love this idea! I am a teacher at a small alternative high school in Indiana, and I work with students to help them achieve their diplomas and hopefully put some pieces of their lives back together again after any number of difficulties.
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He is the author of two chapbooks, available exclusively through NightBallet Press, and his first full-length will appear in April from Red Paint Hill Publishing.
Christine was a runner-up to the Poet Laureate of Queens. She works at the University of Pennsylvania. He has written plays for theater and radio, short stories, novels, and poems. In the summer Minkert works with visually impaired school kids to produce radio plays and PSAs dealing with their experience.
Thomas Aquinas College. She is a graduate of Cornell University and teaches in New England. We chose a typical area in downtown Tunis with a similar configuration, the Habib Bourguiba Avenue. This configuration is known to be problematic to cross; it is regulated and controlled by traffic lights as well as traffic police, who are in fact continuously present in order to supervise traffic flow see figure 3. Among the largest and busiest in the capital, this roundabout is strategically located, regulating the flow of vehicles accessing the downtown area and connecting the main roads leading to the suburbs of Tunis.
It consists of an accessible central area made up of a fountain and a giant clock surrounded by grass. Observations have shown that this central reservation acts as a rest area or simply as a transitional area leading to the other part of the avenue see figure 3 c. Illustration 3: Schematic representation of three accident-prone configurations in city traffic: a conventional intersections, b crossroads and c traffic circles. In fact, it is extremely difficult for senior pedestrians with hearing loss to decide the right time to cross a road as they often miscalculate the time interval needed thus inevitably leading to accidents.
This is precisely why we decided to study urban configurations roundabout and crossroads which are complex but regulated by traffic lights. They had no physical or mental health issues but suffered from various levels of presbycusis. A third of the subjects were wearing hearing aids Hussein, The levels of presbyacusis degradation fall into two categories: low to medium hearing loss of 50 dB to 70 dB and medium to deep loss of 70 dB to dB or more auditive degradation.
A third of the subjects were wearing hearing aids see figure 4. Illustration 4: Population profiles - distributions based on the level of presbycusis deficiency, with or without a hearing aid. Gozi, Raja. Bahri, Houda. As participants grew older, their losses in decibels were much higher, particularly when their ages ranged from 70 to 80 years old.
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The aim of these walks was to obtain a full record of the multisensorial perception in movement and the audio perception in particular. Nevertheless for various reasons, the task proved to be laborious and difficult. Due to their audio deficiencies the subjects resorted to a process of auto-compensation, through other sensorial channels, while describing and commenting their walks.
We even observed comments based on memory rather than real-time impressions.
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When attending to seniors, one must take into consideration their fragile psychological state. Hence, we had to constantly reassure the participants and avoid pressuring them with excessive insistence on focusing solely on what they discerned during the experiment.
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Among the difficulties dreaded by most of the participants was crossing roads due to the complexity of the task and the perceptive, cognitive and motor skills involved. We noted that a majority of the participants spent a great deal of time observing and visually exploring their surroundings to select a suitable and precise route.
Certain participants requested our opinion. As a result we had to constantly remind them that we were mere observers and that they were free to decide their own actions in relation to the experiment. Consequently, we noted with varying degrees of accuracy:. The different walks were carried out in constant and homogenous weather conditions, over the required period and throughout the three pre-selected sites and 60 itineraries.
Emotional arousal is a form of electrodermal activity that increases during states of intense concentration, anxiety or excitement and decreases during states of boredom, relaxation or indifference.
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The walks carried out in this study were at periods of high traffic and during daytime. Each time a subject was undergoing stress; this phenomenon was translated graphically on the electrodermal activity curve demonstrating a disturbance in the recorded line. This disturbance is referred to as an electrodermal reaction and can be specific with an identified stimulus or non specific. Illustration 5 : The Q-Sensor for electrodermal activities measurements.
Source : Hussein, Faten. In addition, we took various precautions which included keeping the second sound recorder at a certain distance from the original one used to record the comments, in such a way as to avoid any interference between speech and sound scenes. The similarity matrix makes it possible to visualize a sound structure via its acoustic self-similarity across time, rather than by its absolute characteristics.
The resulting imagery contains the quantitative similarity between all paired audio-timeframe combinations. The result of such an operation is a textured grayscale image where we can see and localize the modifications of sonic ambiances and the emergence of sound events when they occur. The different steps of the sound scene segmentation are represented as follows:.
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Illustration 6: Example of algorithm stages of sound scenes segmentation. Source: Ghozi, Raja. Jaidane, Meriem. This was carried out for all twenty participants. Thus, the emergence of a stressful sound event can be expressed graphically. So we compared two levels of sound representations:. The electrodermal activity level 1 with the sound sources and events identified by senior pedestrians during their commented walks.
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The sound-scene segmentation level 2. Illustration 7: Time evolution of EDA levels for subject F2, and corresponding soundscape segmentation. For a further detailed illustration, we analyzed a specific sound scene with the proposed segmentation algorithm. The resulting grayscale image represented the segmented scene where each pixel is given a grayscale value proportional to the similarity measure: the higher the similarity, the brighter is the pixel.
In fact, it enables them to minimize and alert in case of potentially alarming situations confirmed by their Electrodermal Activity level. Statistical studies can contribute to produce a model which could be applied to a specific urban space and its corresponding soundscapes Bahri et al.
The graphical stage of any project realization would be enhanced with sound mappings convenient to a certain class of population, namely pedestrians suffering from presbycusis, thereby enhancing the chances of their situational awareness and safety level during road crossings. Therefore, urban designers have to take into consideration new practices while establishing rules for equal accessibility of urban spaces by all users, particularly for persons with presbycusis.
On that account, any dangerous situation triggered by the emergence of a sound event and non-identified by senior pedestrians will be subject to detection, developing therefore a secure and accessible city for all its users, including seniors with hearing deficiencies, while avoiding potentially disabling spaces. A deeper analysis of the EDA data, with the participation of not only architects but also urbanists, and ICT professionals; it is important as well to consider the feedback from environmental and human psychology specialists in order to ratify, confirm and encourage similar multi-disciplinary projects on urban soundscape design.
We have to mention that the impaired hearing ability of our elderly subjects is inevitably associated with an alteration of other sensory channels, as well as the motor function. The conclusions we have drawn have to take into account other aspects of aging which affect safety in the city.